Written by Jose Caballero
Magazines, television, social media, and films have continuously set beauty standards throughout decades. Today, the media is especially influential in establishing beauty standards and shifting them over time, creating immense pressure to look a certain way. This societal need to meet imposed beauty standards results in individual's experiencing dissatisfaction with their bodies when they cannot satisfy these expectations.
There is a clear difference between body image and body satisfaction. Body image refers to an individual's perception of what their body should look like and how attractive they believe they are. When an individual is able to accept, appreciate, and respect their body, they may be described as having a positive body image. Body satisfaction, on the other hand, refers to a state of complete satisfaction with one's appearance, regardless of one's physical limitations. Body dissatisfaction is developed when people begin to view themselves based on their negative body image, which may have negative outcomes such as eating disorders, depression, and anxiety (Macedo et al., 2010).
Social media's unrealistic beauty standards
MacCallum (2018) reveals how the widespread use of Photoshop has made it increasingly difficult to achieve the desired body since it allows people to construct impossibly flawless bodies through picture editing. She also observes how impossible it is to recognize the use of Photoshop, which encourages the portrayal of unrealistic beauty standards on social media and influences people’s perceptions of beauty and their body satisfaction. The accessibility of Photoshop and its widespread use on common social media platforms can easily deceive users about attainable beauty standards.
Naccache’s et al. (2021) findings further expand on MacCallum’s (2018) claim. They used 1331 college women, who were given a questionnaire to measure how social media platforms (followed accounts, selfies posted, and images from celebrities) impact their body satisfaction and body-image. They discovered that the more the individuals compared themselves to images on social media, the greater their body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness are. They also found a significant link between body dissatisfaction, desire for thinness, and the frequency with which one compares one's own physical appearance to celebrities on social media. With the prevalence of technology, notably social media, people have been conditioned to believe that posts on social platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, and Tiktok are what most people actually look like, and therefore, what they should emulate in their own appearances.
Similarly, in a cross-sectional study by Aparicio (2019), female college students were given a questionnaire related to social media’s influence on their body satisfaction, including photos of famous women’s bodies commonly portrayed on social media. The findings indicated that women perceived themselves fatter when compared to famous women’s bodies on social media. The results from the data showed that almost 93% of the women desired to change at least three zones of their body using at least two different methods influenced by famous influencers, such as physical activity (92%), diet (48%), surgery (24%), and beauty or alimentary products (23%). These findings are important because they suggest the powerful influence that social media has on body image and body satisfaction. They also reveal the common glamorization of unrealistic bodies on social media, where anyone can be exposed to images of celebrities with ideal bodies on a daily basis.
The relationship between the media and eating disorders
Dissatisfaction with an individual’s body can lead to developing eating disorders (EDs). In fact, EDs are the third most common chronic disease in female adolescents in industrialized countries (Macedo et al., 2010). Researchers argue that body dissatisfaction can not only lead individuals to develop eating disorders but also generate a series of damaging conditions, such as compromised emotional well-being, low self-esteem, and symptoms of depression (Pearce et al., 2020; Gillen et al., 2015; Montgomery, 2017).
The idea that the media (social media, television, and beauty magazines) highly influences EDs is reinforced by several studies (McBride, 2019; Silva et al., 2018; Macedo et al., 2010). In a study by Blodgett et al. (2015), 157 females with self-reported eating disorders and 220 females without eating disorders were used to investigate the factors of developing EDs. They discovered that females without EDs reported the desire of looking thin like the bodies they see in the media. Similarly, females with self- reported EDs reported that the media caused them to develop EDs since they tried to emulate desirable body types. This evidence is significant because it indicates that most females desire to have ideal bodies portrayed in the media, whether they have an eating disorder or not.
Gender and race differences in body satisfaction
In a study by Mikolajczyk et al. (2010), body appearance, body satisfaction, and self-reported body mass index (BMI) in females and males from different races (52% African American, 27% White, and 21% Hispanics) were measured by utilizing the U.S. Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire. They discovered that Hispanic, Non-Hispanic, and White females had more negative perceptions of their body appearance and considered themselves too fat. However, African American females perceived their appearance to be substantially more favorable and were less likely to judge themselves to be overweight even when possessing higher BMI scores.
Similarly, Virginia (2018) conducted interviews and created a questionnaire to evaluate body satisfaction in 1445 women of various races (8% White, 2% Asian, 11% Hispanic, and 21% Black), finding that Black women had noticeably higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their bodies to those portrayed in the media, and felt less pressured to achieve a certain body image in order to feel satisfied with their appearance. Hispanic and Asian females, on the other hand, showed lower levels of body satisfaction and a more negative perception of body image.
The results of these studies may indicate that in general, African American women have higher body satisfaction than women of other races. These findings are also consistent with previous findings (Blodgett et al., 2015; Jones, 2013; Hadassah et al., 2019; Izydorczyk, 2018; Kopcakova et al, 2021; Lefkowitz, 2015; Virginia, 2018) that African American females are less affected by White media images than their White counterparts, possibly rejecting the implicit beauty and social pressure to match the popularized "thin" ideal, which White women may internalize more (Izydorczyk, 2018). For African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic males, they regarded themselves as either too thin or somewhat too fat. Men may internalize a muscular ideal based on media appearances since they commonly regard themselves as too thin, similar to how women internalize the culturally ideal thin body of their sex (Aparicio, 2019).
Emotional intelligence and body image
In recent years, the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as a potential new construct for explaining behavioral variance. The term emotional intelligence refers to “the ability to understand and manage emotions to channel them in a positive way so that they work for us and not against” (Sheikh, 2015).
In a study by Amado et al. (2020), body image was measured by determining the levels of emotional intelligence in 944 primary school students (548 boys and 396 girls aged between 9 and 12 years from different schools in Extremadura, Spain). They discovered that 76.3% of the Hispanic children participating in this research were not satisfied with their bodies, and boys wanted to have a more athletic build. However, they discovered that the children who were satisfied with their body image showed higher levels of EI, greater ability to manage stress and have more emotional control. Similarly, in another study by Sheikh (2015), there was a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and body image of team athletes. He found that the athletes with higher emotional intelligence had a better and more positive body image of themselves. Ultimately, these studies revealed that emotional intelligence levels can significantly influence body image.
The present study
While some research has been conducted to investigate how social media and race influence females’ body satisfaction and body-image, very little academic research has focused on males’ body satisfaction and the factors that may contribute to the disparities between the levels of body satisfaction among women of different races. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to compare the levels of body satisfaction and body image, specifically between Hispanic males and Hispanic females, and find if emotional intelligence is a potential factor contributing to different levels of body satisfaction between male and female adolescents of Hispanic ethnicities. In the present study, three primary research questions were addressed:
Q1: To what extent are Hispanic females’ and Hispanic males’ body image and body satisfaction levels different?
Q2: Is there a relationship between the levels of body satisfaction and emotional intelligence of Hispanics?
Q3: What factors may contribute to Hispanics' varying levels of body satisfaction?
Because previous research has indicated that females have higher levels of body satisfaction and a more positive perception of their body image than males, the following hypotheses were tested in the present study:
Hispanic females will have an extremely positive perception of their body image than Hispanic males.
Hispanic females will have higher levels of BS than Hispanic males.
Participants who show greater satisfaction with their body will have higher levels of emotional intelligence.
Hispanic females would report higher levels of emotional intelligence than Hispanic males.
It was hypothesized that participants with higher levels of emotional intelligence would perform better on body satisfaction because emotional intelligence is how an individual copes with external stressors that may hinder their growth; in this case, these stressors can conclude unrealistic beauty standards and body dissatisfaction.
Miami Senior High is located in a predominantly Hispanic community, making it an ideal site to recruit participants for this data collection. For this study, the researcher recruited two hundred Hispanic participants (111 females and 89 males), whose grade levels ranged from ninth to twelfth grade. The students were recruited from two clubs at Miami Senior High, BETA National Honor Society and In Touch. The researcher chose to recruit participants from clubs since they represent a variety of student grade levels and diverse personalities within the student body at Miami Senior High. As an incentive to participate, each student received 20 community service hours from the clubs for completing all questionnaires. Because the researcher is the president of In Touch and the 2nd Vice-President for BETA, he had full approval from his advisors and CAP Counselor to grant these community hours to participants.
The measurement instrument of the present study was influenced by other research studies. The researcher replicated Sheikh’s measurement instrument: Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT), to measure emotional intelligence (EI). To measure body satisfaction and body image, the researcher modified the measurement instrument from Virginia’s (2019) and Amado’s (2020) studies, Social Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3).
These questionnaires were used in previous studies to 1) investigate the different levels of body image and body satisfaction among different races and sexes, 2) determine how emotional intelligence influences body image, and 3) evaluate the impact of the media on beauty standards and worldviews. The researcher combined all questionnaires together in one Google Form (41 questions with four sections) since this was a more accessible and efficient method to facilitate organization and accuracy from participants.
Prior to data collection, the modified self-reporting questionnaire was pilot tested for clarity and seven adolescents were randomly recruited from the researcher’s AP Research class. The seven adolescents (age 17) were contacted by phone; the researcher explained the purpose of the questionnaires and asked them if they were willing to participate. The researcher also explained that they did not need to submit the finished questionnaires and that the main purpose was checking for effectiveness.
Demographics (Section 1). The first section of this questionnaire asked students about their race, gender, age, and Hispanic background. This was to ensure the tested participants were of Hispanic ethnicities.
Emotional Intelligence Test (Section 2). The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) is a method of measuring Emotional Intelligence (EI). It was created in 1998 by Dr. Nicola Schutte and her colleagues and has since been widely used. According to the disclaimers of this test, if the participant knows that it measures EI, they will most likely give a biased response. Therefore, the researcher decided to title this section “Section 2” in the questionnaire and did not reveal what was being measured. This suggestion was applied to the entire questionnaire, since each section was titled with a number and not with the specific variable to avoid biased responses and acquire a more honest and accurate response from the participants.
The SSEIT includes an 11-item self-report in a Likert-type scale, in which a 1 meant “Rarely,” a 2 was “Not Often,” a 3 was “Sometimes,” a 4 was “Often,” and a 5 was “Almost Always.” These items were written in the form of statements where the participants indicated the extent to which they agree or disagree with them (e.g., “I am aware of my emotions or what I'm feeling at most times”; “I can list with some details my strengths and weaknesses”). This quantitative data provided information about the participants’ ability to understand their emotions and the emotions of others. Scores for this section range from 11 to 51, in which an 11 was considered a low level of EI while a 51 indicated an exceptional level of EI.
Body Image (Section 3). The SATAQ-3 measures body image and body satisfaction. Therefore, the researcher decided to utilize these two sections on the present study since its credibility and reliability were recognized in previous studies (Virginia, 2019; Amado, 2020; Mikolajczyk et al., 2010; Blodgett et al., 2015; Jones, 2013; Hadassah et al., 2019; Izydorczyk, 2018). For the body image section of the present study, questions were in the form of statements in which participants determined how often they compare their body to those in the media or in their everyday surroundings (e.g., “When I'm at the gym, I compare my physical appearance to the appearance of others”; “I compare my appearance to the appearance of TV and movie stars”; “I’ve felt pressure from TV, social media platforms, or magazines to have a perfect body”). In this section, a 1 meant “Never,” a 2 “Rarely,” a 3 “Sometimes,” a 4 “Often,” and a 5 “Always.” The statements were directly used from the SATAQ-3. Scores from this section range from 8 to 40, in which an 8 indicates an extremely poor body image while a 40 indicates an extremely positive body image.
Body Satisfaction (Section 4). Section 4 contained 15 statements in a Likert type-scale from the SATAQ-3 to test the different levels of body satisfaction. This questionnaire measured levels of body satisfaction by having participants rate how often they compare parts of their body to those of other individuals of the same sex. In this section, a 1 meant “Never,” a 2 meant “Rarely,” a 3 meant “Sometimes,” a 4 meant “Often,” and a 5 meant “Always.” Scores for this section range from 15 to 75, in which a 15 is considered a low level of body satisfaction while a 75 indicates a high level of body satisfaction. The statements and number of questions were directly used from the SATAQ-3 since its credibility and reliability were recognized in previous studies, and the researcher and pilot-tested participants did not find any issues with it.
Over the four weeks during which data was collected, participants completed a four-section questionnaire to measure their 1) Hispanic background, 2) emotional intelligence, 3) body image, and 4) body satisfaction.
This data was collected in two steps: 1) students were given a consent form to take home and have signed by their parents to complete the questionnaires; and 2) participants joined a class group on the app Remind (an online communication platform adopted by the researcher's school district) and the researcher made sure all participants in the class group had turned in their consent forms. Subsequently, participants were sent a link through Remind with the questionnaire that included the previously mentioned sections. The researcher then distributed community hours to those who provided proof of their consent form and questionnaire confirmation.
A total of 200 Hispanic students participated in this study. Of these, 115 (64.9%) were females and 85 (35.1%) were males. 65% of the participants were born in the USA, while 33.5% were born outside the USA. Of the students born outside the USA, 38.7% of the participants were born in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Dominican Republic, 16.8% were born in South America, 39.9% were born in Central America, and 4.6% in Mexico. Demographics can be seen in Table 1.
Table 1: Demographics of participants (33.5%) born outside the USA
The researcher divided the participants’ scores into three different categories to distinguish and analyze different levels of Body Image (BI), Body Satisfaction (BS), and Emotional Intelligence (EI). Specifically, low BI scores ranged from 8 to 18, moderate BI scores from 19 to 28, and high BI scores from 29 to 40. Dissatisfied BS scores ranged from 15 to 30, moderate BS scores ranged from 31 to 50, and satisfied BS scores ranged from 51 to 75. Lastly, Low EI scores ranged from 11 to 24, moderate EI scores ranged from 25 to 38, and high EI scores ranged from 39 to 51. Table 2 shows these criteria.
Table 2: Criteria
To answer question #1 (To what extent are Hispanic females’ and Hispanic males’ body image and body satisfaction levels different?), participants’ body image levels were divided by sex. Males’ body image scores ranged from 8-33 out of 40 (M=18.15, SD=7.60), and females’ ranged from 8-36 out of 40 (M=24.25, SD=6.65). For Hispanics in general (females and males), BI scores ranged from 8-36 out of 40, with a mean score of 21.65 (SD=7.68). The mean scores for Body Image are presented in Table 1 and 1.1.
Participants’ BS levels were calculated by sex. Females’ scores ranged from 17-75 out of 75 (M=44.96, SD=13.08), and males’ scores ranged from 5-62 out of 75 (M=37.68, SD=14.35). For Hispanics in general (females and males), BS scores ranged from 15-75 out of 75 with a mean score of 41.85 (SD=14.07). Mean scores for this section can be seen in Table 1 and 1.1.
Participants’ EI levels were distinguished by their sex. Females’ scores ranged from 17-51 out of 51 (M=36.55, SD=7.35), and males’ scores ranged from 11-51 out of 51 (M=41.04, SD=7.01). For Hispanics in general (females and males), EI scores ranged from 11-51 out of 51 with a mean score of 40.37 (SD=9.78). Mean scores for this section can be seen in Table 1 and 1.1.
Table 1: Questionnaire Results
Table 1.1: Questionnaire Results (both male and female Hispanics)
Hispanic Females’ and Males’ Body Image Difference
It was predicted that females would report higher levels of body image than males. The data supported this hypothesis, as females' BI average was 24.25, while males' BI average was 18.15, a difference of 6.1. A two-sample t-test revealed that this difference in body image was statistically significant (p<0.0001). As shown in this data, females had a more positive perception of their body image, whereas males had a significantly negative perception of their body image. Graph 1 portrays this difference.
Hispanic Females’ and Males’ Body Satisfaction Difference
It was hypothesized that females would report higher levels of BS than males. The data supported this hypothesis since female participants had a BS average of 44.96, while males had a BS average of 37.68, a difference of 7.28. A two-paired t-test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. The paired t-test revealed a statistical difference between both variables (P<0.0002), with females having higher BS levels than males.' These findings are in accordance with those of Mikolajczyk (2010), Kopcakova (2021), and Virginia (2018), who found that Hispanic and African American females had higher levels of body satisfaction than males and non-Hispanic females.
It should be noted, however, that 60.87% of females were still dissatisfied with their bodies and desired to be thinner; specifically, only 45/115 (39.13%) females reported satisfactory BS, 51/115 (44.35%) females reported moderate BS levels, and 19/115 (16.52%) females reported low BS. Similarly, 75.30% of males were dissatisfied with their bodies and desired a more athletic and muscular physique. Only 21/85 (24.71%) of males reported satisfied BS, 32/85 (37.65%) reported moderate BS, and 32/85 (37.65%) reported low BS. These findings are consistent with Alonso's (2020) findings that 76.3% of Hispanic children (ages 9-14) were dissatisfied with their bodies. These findings are alarming, given that studies have found body dissatisfaction to be associated with negative and maladaptive consequences of children's behavior, such as the development of eating disorders and low levels of physical activity (Pearce et al., 2020; Gillen et al., 2015; Montgomery, 2017). Graph 2 portrays this data.
Females and Males Emotional Intelligence Levels
The EI of the participants was measured to find if it might contribute to having higher or lower levels of BS. It was hypothesized that females would report higher levels of EI than males. This hypothesis was not supported by the data, since Females reported an average of 36.55, whereas males reported 41.04, with a 4.49 difference between both groups. A two-sample t-test was performed to further find a statistical difference between both groups. The t-test revealed that there is a statistical difference between the two groups (P<0.0003).
Body Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence Relationship:
To answer question #2 (Is there a relationship between the different levels of body satisfaction and emotional intelligence of Hispanics?), correlation tests were performed to analyze the relationship between BS and EI among Hispanics. The correlation test between Hispanics’ BS levels and Hispanics’ EI levels revealed a positive relationship (r=0.143); however, this relationship was very weak. To obtain a more detailed analysis of the potential relationship between the two variables, participants were categorized based on their BS levels:
1. High BS: 66 participants
2. Moderate BS: 83 participants
3. Low BS: 51 participants
A correlation test was, therefore, performed on each of the three groups dividing participants' BS levels. The correlation test for participants with low BS revealed a positive relationship (r=0.112), indicating that as BS decreases, EI levels decrease as well. However, this relationship was very weak. The correlation test for participants with moderate BS revealed a positive relationship (r=0.1604), indicating that as BS levels increase, EI levels increase as well. However, this relationship was also very weak. Finally, the most important finding related to question #2 of the present study concerned the participants with high BS levels, as the correlation test revealed a strong positive relationship between BS and EI (r=0.448).
These correlations potentially indicate that as one's BS rises, so does their EI, and vice versa. Overall, the findings reveal generally positive correlations between BS and EI. In other words, the participants' questionnaire performance indicates that Hispanics who possess high BS may also possess high EI, and Hispanics with low BS, in turn, may also possess low EI. These findings are in line with those of Sheik (2015), who found that athletes with high emotional intelligence were more satisfied with their bodies and had a more positive perception of their own body.
Body image, body satisfaction, and emotional intelligence were the three major variables analyzed and compared to determine the relationship between BS and EI, the extent to which BI and BS differ between Hispanic males and females, and the factors that may contribute to different levels of BS among Hispanics.
Body Image and Body Satisfaction Questionnaire. Females exhibited extremely positive levels of BI and higher levels of BS than males. These differences were statistically significant; hence, this outcome did not occur coincidentally. These results support the findings of Pearce (2020), who found that Hispanic and African American females have noticeably higher levels of BS and BI than males. However, the percentages of participants dissatisfied with their bodies (60.87% females and 75.3% males) are extremely alarming numbers. These findings are consistent with Amado’s (2020) findings that 76.3% of Hispanic children (ages 9-14) were dissatisfied with their bodies. This percentage is crucial, given that body dissatisfaction has been associated with self-destructive behavior in children, such as the development of eating disorders and low levels of physical activity (Pearce et al., 2020; Gillen et al., 2015; Montgomery, 2017).
The percentages of low BS and BI in this study can be explained by the age sample, as adolescence is a stage where students typically begin to mature and experience bodily changes. In fact, there are more and more studies that show neurobiological and social contextual factors (Wong Y, 2014; Hollander E., 1993) potentially influencing the development of social cognition and behavior during adolescence and puberty. However, in the context of modern society, the findings from the present study indicate that high school students commonly have negative body images and may be influenced by beauty ideals they encounter every day through their exposure to the media. Common standards of beauty consist of thinness in the female body and musculature in the male body while emphasizing an idealized perfection everyone should attempt to emulate.
BS and EI Relationship. Several conclusions were drawn after analyzing the data collection. There was a positive relationship between all Hispanic participants' BS and EI levels; however, this relationship was statistically weak. To analyze the relationship between EI and BS in greater detail, the researcher decided to categorize participants' BS levels into Low BS, Moderate BS, and High BS and test the correlations in each divided group. The researcher discovered that there was a statistically significant difference among these groups. In fact, participants with high BS had a stronger correlation with high EI than those with low and moderate BS. These findings imply that there is a positive significant relationship between BS and EI, since the higher the BS levels of participants, the higher their EI levels. These findings are consistent with Amado’s (2020) findings that Hispanic children who are satisfied with their bodies have higher levels of emotional intelligence, greater ability to connect emotionally with others, greater adaptability to different situations, and better moods. Thus, developing one’s emotional intelligence may help improve body image satisfaction.
These results also helped answer question #3 (What factors may contribute to Hispanics' varying levels of body satisfaction?) as EI seems to be an influential factor for achieving body image satisfaction. In the present study, participants with higher emotional intelligence showed higher self-confidence; as a result, they are more satisfied with their body image. It can be concluded, therefore, that emotional intelligence is crucial in determining whether Hispanics have higher or lower levels of BS.
Given the alarming number of Hispanic participants in this study who are dissatisfied with their body image, and previous research that has found body dissatisfaction among teenagers (Blodgett et al., 2015; Jones, 2013; Hadassah et al., 2019; Izydorczyk, 2018; Kopcakova et al, 2021; Lefkowitz, 2015; Virginia, 2018), schools should begin teaching adolescents how to cope with stressors that may influence body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction can not only lead an individual to develop eating disorders, depression, and anxiety, but it can also have long-lasting consequences. According to Amado (2019), a licensed physician in the state of New York, in 2020, suicide was the third leading cause of death in the U.S. between the ages of 10 and 19. Suicide today has become the second leading cause of death in the U.S. between these same ages (Amado, 2019), and one of the factors that always contribute to individuals committing suicide is the lack of satisfaction with their own appearance. In other words, dissatisfaction with one’s own body is a significant and complex issue affecting most adolescents.
Most adolescents complete their primary and secondary education, which could serve as positive resources to help students confront serious issues they would otherwise avoid. It is necessary to promote training and intervention programs or similar resources to help prevent adolescent body image dissatisfaction while promoting healthy habits. These programs could be imparted by psychologists, nutritionists, and even doctors, and school officials should also partake in encouraging them. The goal would be to make everyone in the school community (students, teachers, and parents) more aware of healthy eating and exercise, and to educate students on attainable ways to maintain their health and become satisfied with their bodies.
In order to arouse interest in these kinds of programs and ensure their effectiveness, they must be adapted to the demands of contemporary society. Therefore, the use of modern technologies could be applied, such as the creation of educational blogs or discussion opportunities for students to actively participate in. Lastly, schools can host interest workshops that incorporate students' culture and identities in discussions of health. Specialists of diverse identities that work in different fields can lead these workshops for students to feel represented and receive information they may feel is more sincere and credible, rather than falsely generalizable to all identities.
Limitations and suggestions for future research
Limitations. The present study had some inconsistencies, which may limit the validity of the data. One limitation was that the participants of the study were recruited only from the In Touch organization and BETA Club at Miami High, which may not represent Miami High’s entire population; most importantly, these clubs may not represent the whole Hispanic community. Another limitation was the use of the SATAQ-3 for this study. Others researcher have utilized BMI to measure BS since it categorizes participants into overweight, obese, and skinny. This method could be implemented in future research for a more detailed analysis of body satisfaction that takes BMI into consideration.
Suggestions for future research. The current study engages with previous research to suggest EI as a potential factor influencing BS levels. Because the participants BMIs were not calculated to determine BS, future researchers may find it useful to investigate whether BMI is another factor that contributes to higher or lower BS levels. Additionally, future research can further analyze EI and its relation to body image, as well as how it differs between races and sexes. Because male participants frequently exhibited negative body images in this study, more attention can be paid to factors influencing male body image. Lastly, future research should delve into cultural backgrounds of participants to find underlying factors for EI, BI, and BS levels. EI is a factor for BS levels, but other factors may also play a role.